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Jummah & Eid Salah

By

Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi رحمه الله

Courtesy of  http://www.nazmay.com 

Table Of Contents
Jummah Salah Prayer
The Virtues Of Jumu'ah

The Aadaab Of Jumu'ah
The Virtues And Importance Of Jumu'ah Salaat
The Method Of Offering Jumu'ah Salaat
Prerequisites Which Make Jumu'ah Salaat Wajib
Prerequisites For The Jumu'ah Salaat To Be Valid

Rules For The Jumu'ah Khutbah
The Jumu'ah Khutbah Of Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم
Rules Related To Jumu'ah Salaat
Eid Salaat
Miscellaneous Masa'il

Glossary  

Jumu'ah Salaat

Allah Ta'ala does not like anything more than salaat. It is for this reason that we do not find such great emphasis for any other form of ibaadah in the pure Shariah. It is for this reason that Allah Ta'ala has specified this ibaadah five times daily as a form of gratitude for His endless bounties. These bounties which commence from birth right until death - in fact they continue after death and commence even before birth.

Since Friday has been accorded the most amount of merits as opposed to other days, so much so that the father of all mankind Hadrat Aadam alayhis salaam was created on this day, a special salaat was therefore ordered for this day. We have already mentioned the benefits and wisdom of jama'at. It has also been made clear that the bigger the jama'at the more those benefits will become apparent. This will only be possible if the people of all the different areas and the residents of that place get together and offer their salaat collectively. This would have been extremely difficult if it were to be done five times daily. Because of all this, the Shariah has specified such a day in the week in which the people of all the different residential areas and villages can get together and fulfil this ibaadah. Since jumu'ah is the most virtuous and noble of days, this ibaadah has been specified for this day. Allah Ta'ala had also specified this day as a day of ibaadah for the previous nations. But because of their bad-luck, they disputed and differed with regards to it. The result of this dispute was that they were deprived of this great bounty and this ummah has been favoured with this bounty. The Jews set aside Saturday on the basis that Allah Ta'ala had completed creating the entire creation on this day. The Christians set aside Sunday thinking that this is the day when Allah Ta'ala commenced with the creation. Because of this, both these groups make numerous arrangements on both these days - leaving all work on these days and spending it in worship. It is because of this that all the offices are closed on Sundays in Christian countries.

The Virtues of Jumu'ah

1. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم said :  "Friday is the best of days. It was on this day that Hadrat Aadam alayhis salaam was created, it was on this day that he was granted entry into jannah, it was on this day that he was removed from jannah (which became the cause for man's existence in this universe, and which is a great blessing), and the day of resurrection will also take place on this day." (Sahih Muslim)

2. It is related from Imam Ahmad rahmatullahi alayh that he said that in certain aspects the rank of the night of jumu'ah is even higher than Laylatul Qadr. One of the reasons for this is that it was on this night that Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم appeared in the womb of his mother. Rasulullah's صلى الله عليه وسلمappearance in this world was a cause of so much good and blessings both in this world and in the hereafter that they cannot be enumerated. (Ash'atul Lama'aat)

3. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم said :  "There is such an hour on Friday that if any Muslim makes dua in it, his dua will definitely be accepted." (Bukhari, Muslim) The ulama have differed in specifying that hour which has been mentioned in the Hadith. Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlawi rahmatullahi alayh has mentioned 40 different opinions in his book Sharh Sifrus Sa'aadah. However, from among all these opinions he has given preference to two opinions :  (1) That time is from the commencement of the khutbah till the end of the salaat, (2) That time is towards the end of the day. A big group of ulama have given preference to this second opinion and there are many Ahadith which support this opinion. Shaykh Dehlawi rahmatullahi alayh says that this narration is correct that Hadrat Fatimah radiallahu anha used to order her maid on Fridays to inform her when the day is about to end so that she could occupy herself in making zikr and duas. (Ash'atul Lama'aat)

4. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم said :  "Of all the days, Friday is the most virtuous. It is on this day that the trumpet will be blown. Send abundant durood upon me on Fridays because they are presented to me on that day." The Sahabah radiallahu anhum asked :  "O Rasulullah! How will they be presented to you when even your bones will not be present after your death?" Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمreplied :  "Allah Ta'ala has made the earth haraam upon the prophets forever." (Abu Daud)

5. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم said :  "The word "shaahid" refers to Friday. There is no day more virtuous than Friday. There is such an hour in this day that no Muslim will make dua in it except that his dua will be accepted. And he does not seek protection from anything except that Allah Ta'ala will grant him protection." (Tirmidhi) The word "shaahid" appears in Surah Burooj. Allah Ta'ala has taken an oath of that day. He says in the Quran :

Translation :  "By the sky in which there are constellations. By the promised day (of judgement). By the day that witnesses (Friday), and the day that is witnessed (day of Arafah)."

6. Rasulullah  صلى الله عليه وسلم said :  "Friday is the "mother" of all days and the most virtuous in the sight of Allah Ta'ala. In the sight of Allah Ta'ala it has more greatness than Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Ad'haa." (Ibn Majah)

7. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم said :  "The Muslim who passes away on the night or during the day of Friday, Allah Ta'ala saves him from the punishment of the grave." (Tirmidhi)

8. Once Hadrat Ibne Abbas radiallahu anhu recited the following verse :  "This day, I have completed your Deen for you." A Jew was sitting near him. On hearing this verse being recited he remarked :  "If this verse was revealed to us, we would have celebrated that day as a day of eid." Ibne Abbas radiallahu anhu replied :  "This verse was revealed on two eids, i.e. on the day of jumu'ah and the day of arafah." In other words, what is the need for us to make that day into a day of eid when it was already a day of two eids?

9. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم used to say that the night of jumu'ah is a lustrous night, and the day of jumu'ah is a lustrous day. (Mishkaat)

10. After qiyaamah, Allah Ta'ala will send those who deserve paradise into paradise, and those who deserve hell into hell. The days that we have in this world will also be there. Although there will be no day and night, Allah Ta'ala will show us the extent of days and nights and also the number of hours. So when Friday will come and that hour when the people used to go for jumu'ah will approach, a person will call out saying :  "O dwellers of jannah! Go into the jungles of abundance, the length and breadth of which are not known to anyone besides Allah Ta'ala. There will be mounds of musk which will be as high as the skies. The prophets alayhimus salaam will be made to sit on towers of light, and the believers on chairs of sapphires. Once everyone is seated in their respective places, Allah Ta'ala will send a breeze which will carry that musk. That breeze will carry the musk and apply it to their clothing, faces and hair. That breeze will know how to apply that musk even better than that woman who is given all the different perfumes of the world. Allah Ta'ala will then order the carriers of His throne to go and place His throne among all these people. He will then address them saying :  "O my servants who have brought faith in the unseen despite not seeing Me, who have attested My Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and who have obeyed My laws! Ask Me whatever you wish for. This day is the day of giving abundantly." They will all exclaim in one voice :  "O Allah! We are pleased with You, You also be pleased with us." Allah Ta'ala will reply :  "O dwellers of jannah! If I were not pleased with you all, I would not have kept you in My jannah. Ask for something because this is the day of giving in abundance." They will all say in one voice :  "O Allah! Show us Your beauty, that we may be able to look at Your noble being with our very eyes." Allah Ta'ala will lift the veil and will become apparent to these people and His beauty will engulf them from all sides. If this order was not given from before hand that the jannatis will never get burnt, without doubt they would not have endured the heat of this light and they would all have got burnt. He will then ask them to go back to their respective places. Their beauty and attractiveness will double through the effects of that Real beauty. These people will then go to their wives. They will not be able to see their wives nor will their wives be able to see them. After a little while, the nur which was concealing them will be removed and they will now be able to see each other. Their wives will tell them that how is it that you do not have the same appearance which you had left with? That is, your appearance is a thousand times better now. They will reply that the reason for this is that the noble being of Allah Ta'ala was made apparent to us and we saw His beauty with our very eyes. (Sharh Sifrus-Sa'aadah) See what a great bounty they received on the day of jumu'ah.

11. Every afternoon, the heat of jahannam is increased. However, through the blessings of jumu'ah, this will not be done on Fridays. (Ihyaa ul-Uloom)

12. On one Friday, Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم said :  "O Muslims! Allah Ta'ala has made this day a day of eid. So have a bath on this day, whoever has perfume should apply it, and use the miswaak." (Ibn Majah)

The Aadaab of Jumu'ah

1. Every Muslim should make preparations for jumu'ah from Thursday. After the asr salaat of Thursday, he should make a lot of istighfaar. He should clean his clothes and keep them ready. If he does not have any perfume in his house, then if it is possible he should try and obtain some and keep it ready so that he will not get distracted with these things on jumu'ah. The pious people of the past have stated that the person to receive the most benefit on Friday will be that person who waits for it and who makes preparations for it from Thursday. The most unfortunate person will be he who does not even know as to when Friday will fall, so much so that he will ask the people in the morning as to which day this is. Some pious people used to go and stay in the jaame musjid from the night of jumu'ah in order to make full preparations for the following day. (Ihyaa ul-Uloom, vol. 1, page 161)

2. On the day of jumu'ah, ghusl should be made and the hair of the head and the rest of the body should be thoroughly washed. It is also very virtuous to use the miswaak on this day.

3. After making ghusl, a person should wear the best clothing that he possesses, and if possible he should also apply some perfume. He should also clip his nails.

4. He should try and go very early to the jaame musjid. The earlier a person goes, the more reward he will receive. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم said :  "On the day of jumu'ah, the angels stand at the entrance of that musjid in which jumu'ah salaat is to be offered. They write down the name of the person who enters the musjid first, and thereafter the name of the person who follows, and they continue doing this. The person who entered first will receive the reward of sacrificing a camel in the path of Allah, the one who followed him will get the reward of sacrificing a cow, thereafter a chicken, thereafter the reward of giving an egg as charity in the path of Allah. Once the khutbah commences, the angels close the register and begin listening to the khutbah." (Bukhari and Muslim)

In olden times, the roads and alleys used to be extremely busy in the mornings and at fajr time. All the people used to go so early to the jaame musjid and there used to be such a large crowd that it used to look like the days of eid. Later, when this habit was given up, people began saying that this is the first innovation in Islam. After writing this, Imam Ghazali rahmatullahi alayh says :  "Aren't the Muslims ashamed of themselves that the Jews and Christians go so early in the morning to their synagogues and churches on Saturdays and Sundays. Those who are businessmen go so early to the bazaars in order to do their buying and selling. Why don't the Muslims do the same?" The reality of the situation is that the Muslims have totally reduced the value of this blessed day. They do not even know what day this is, and what a high status it has. How sad it is that the day which was more valuable than eid in the eyes of Muslims of the past, which Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمwas proud of and the day which was not granted to the previous nations has become so dishonoured at the hands of Muslims today and it is such a great ingratitude to the favour of Allah Ta'ala that the consequence of all this can be seen with our very eyes."

5. By going walking for the jumu'ah salaat, one gets the reward of fasting for one year for every step that he takes. (Tirmidhi)

6. On Fridays, Rasulullah  صلى الله عليه وسلمused to recite Surah Alif Laam Meem Sajdah and Surah Hal Ataa, in the fajr salaat. These Surahs should therefore be occassionally recited in the fajr salaat on Fridays. Occassionally they should be left out so that people do not regard their recitation as wajib.

7. For the jumu'ah salaat, Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمused to recite the following Surahs :  al-Jumu'ah and al-Munaafiqun, or al-A'la and al-Ghaashiyah.

8. There is a lot of reward in reciting Surah Kahf either before the jumu'ah salaat or after it. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid :  "The person who recites Surah Kahf on Fridays, a nur will appear for him from below the arsh as high as the skies. This light will help him in the darkness of the day of resurrection. And all the sins which he may have committed from the last Friday till this Friday will be forgiven." (Sharh Sifrus-Sa'aadah) The ulama have written that this Hadith refers to minor sins because major sins are not forgiven without making taubah.

9. There is more reward in reciting durood on Fridays than on other days. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that durood should be recited abundantly on Fridays.

The Virtues and Importance of Jumu'ah Salaat

Jumu'ah salaat is fard-e-ayn. It has been established from the Quran, Hadith and the consensus of the ummah. It is one of the most salient features of Islam. The person who rejects jumu'ah salaat is a kaafir. The one who misses it without any valid excuse is a faasiq.

1. Allah Ta'ala says in the Quran :

Translation :  "O you who believe! When the call for jumu'ah salaat is made, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah Ta'ala and leave all transactions. This is best for you if only you know."

In this verse, "remembrance" refers to the jumu'ah salaat and khutbah. "Hasten" means that one should go with great concern and care.

2. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid :  "The person who has a bath on Friday, purifies himself as far as possible, applies oil to his hair, applies perfume, leaves for the musjid, when he arrives at the musjid he does not sit down by removing anyone from his place, offers as many nafl salaats as possible, when the imam delivers the khutbah he remains silent - then his sins from the previous jumu'ah till now will be forgiven." (Bukhari)

3. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid :  "The person who has a bath on Friday and goes early to the musjid on foot, and not by a vehicle, listens to the khutbah and does not do any foolish act while it is being delivered, will get the reward of one year's ibaadah, one year's fasting, and one year's salaat; for every step that he takes." (Tirmidhi)

4. Hadrat Ibn Umar and Abu Hurayrah radiallahu anhuma narrate that they heard Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaying :  "People should abstain from leaving out jumu'ah salaat. If not, Allah Ta'ala will put a seal over their hearts whereby they will fall into severe negligence." (Muslim)

5. Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid :  "The person who misses out three jumu'ah's without any valid reason, Allah Ta'ala puts a seal over his heart." (Tirmidhi) In another narration it is mentioned that Allah Ta'ala becomes displeased with him.

6. Taariq bin Shihaab radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid :  "The jumu'ah salaat with jama'at is a duty which is wajib on every Muslim with the exception of the following four persons :  (i) a slave, that is the one who is owned by someone according to the rules laid down by the Shariah, (ii) a woman, (iii) an immature boy, (iv) a sick person." (Abu Daud)

7. Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid the following in regard to those who leave out jumu'ah :  "It is my earnest desire that I appoint someone as imam in my place while I go and burn the homes of those who do not attend the jumu'ah salaat." (Muslim) A similar Hadith has also been related with regard to leaving out jama'at. We have mentioned this Hadith previously.

8. Ibn Abbas radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid :  "The person who leaves out jumu'ah salaat without a valid reason is written down as a hypocrite in a book that is absolutely protected from any changes and modifications." (Mishkaat) In other words, he will be labelled as a hypocrite forever. However, if he repents or Allah forgives him solely out of His mercy, then this is another matter.

9. Hadrat Jaabir radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid :  "Jumu'ah salaat becomes obligatory on the person who believes in Allah Ta'ala and the last day, except for the sick, musafir, woman, child, and a slave. If a person occupies himself in something unnecessary, or in some transaction, Allah Ta'ala also turns away from him and does not worry about him and Allah is worthy of all praise." (Mishkaat) In other words, He is not affected by anyone's ibaadah nor does He benefit in any way. His essence and being will remain the same irrespective of whether anyone praises Him and worships Him or not.

10. Hadrat Ibn Abbas radiallahu anhu says that the person who leaves out several jumu'ah salaats consecutively has in fact turned away from Islam. (Ash'atul Lama'aat)

11. A person asked Ibn Abbas radiallahu anhu regarding a person who passed away and who should not join the jumu'ah and jama'at salaats :  "What do you have to say regarding such a person?" He replied :  "That person is in jahannam." This person continued asking him this question for a full month and he gave him the same reply. (Ihyaa ul-Uloom)

Even by merely glancing at these Ahadith, one can come to the conclusion that the Shariah has laid great stress on jumu'ah salaat and that severe warnings have been given to the one who leaves out jumu'ah. Can a person who claims to be a Muslim still have the audacity of leaving out this fard duty?

The Method of Offering Jumu'ah Salaat

After the first adhaan of jumu'ah and before the second adhaan, four rakaats of sunnah salaat should be offered. This sunnah is sunnah-e-mu'akkadah. After the khutbah, two rakaats fard jumu'ah salaat should be offered with the imam. Thereafter, four rakaats sunnah should be offered. These are also mu'akkadah. Thereafter, another two rakaats should be offered. According to some ulama these two rakaats are also sunnah-e-mu'akkadah.

Prerequisites which make Jumu'ah Salaat Wajib

1. To be a muqeem. Jumu'ah salaat is not wajib on a musafir.

2. To be sound and healthy. Jumu'ah is not wajib on a person who is sick. That sickness which prevents a person from going to the jaame musjid on foot will be considered. If a person is very weak due to old-age, is unable to go to the musjid or is blind, then all these people will fall under the category of the sick and jumu'ah salaat will not be wajib on them.

3. To be a free person. Jumu'ah salaat is not wajib on a slave.

4. To be a male. Jumu'ah salaat is not wajib on a female.

5. To be free from those excuses which allow one from leaving out the jama'at. These have been mentioned previously. If any of these excuses are found, jumu'ah salaat will not be wajib. Examples :  (i) It is raining very heavily. (ii) One is taking care of a sick person. (iii) By going to the musjid there is a fear of a certain enemy. (iv) The prerequisites which we mentioned in order for salaat to be wajib are also considered here. That is, to be sane, mature, and to be a Muslim.

All these prerequisites which have been mentioned make jumu'ah salaat wajib. If any of these prerequisites are not found in a person and he still offers jumu'ah salaat, then his salaat will be valid. That is, the duty of offering zuhr salaat will fall off. For example, a certain musafir or woman offers jumu'ah salaat.

Prerequisites for the Jumu'ah Salaat to be Valid

1. The place has to be a city or town. Jumu'ah salaat is not valid in a village or jungle. However, jumu'ah will be valid in a village if its population is equal to that of a town. For example, if there is a population of three to four thousand, jumu'ah salaat will be valid.

2. It has to be at the time of zuhr. Jumu'ah salaat is not valid before zuhr time or after the expiry of zuhr. So much so, that if the zuhr time expires while jumu'ah salaat is being offered, then that salaat will become invalid even if the last qa'dah equal to the tashahhud has been completed. It is for this reason that qada is not made for jumu'ah salaat.

3. The khutbah has to be delivered. That is, to face the people and remind them of Allah Ta'ala even if it means merely saying Sub'haanallah or Alhamdo lillah. However, it is makruh to suffice with this alone because it is contrary to the sunnah.

4. The khutbah has to be before the salaat. If the khutbah is delivered after the salaat, the salaat will not be valid.

5. The khutbah has to be delivered within the time of zuhr. If the khutbah is delivered before the time of zuhr, the salaat will not be valid.

6. Jama'at. That is, there has to be at least three persons apart from the imam who are present from the beginning of the khutbah till the sajdah of the first rakaat. This is irrespective of whether those who were present for the khutbah are different from those who are present for the salaat. But this is on the condition that these three persons are such that they are eligible for imamate. Therefore, if there are only women or immature children, the salaat will not be valid.

7. If the people go away before the sajdah and less than three persons remain or no one remains, the salaat will become invalid. However, if they go after the sajdah, the salaat will not be invalid.

8. To offer jumu'ah salaat openly and with full permission. It will not be permissible to offer jumu'ah salaat in any private and secluded place. If jumu'ah salaat is offered at such a place where the general public is not allowed to come or the doors of the musjid are closed at the time of jumu'ah, the salaat will not be valid.

If a person offers jumu'ah salaat despite any of the above-mentioned prerequisites not being met, his salaat will not be valid. He will have to offer zuhr salaat. Since this salaat of his will become a nafl salaat, and since nafl salaat is not offered with such preparations, in such a case it will be makruh-e-tahrimi to offer jumu'ah salaat.

Rules for the Jumu'ah Khutbah

1. Once all the people have gathered together, the imam should sit on the mimbar and the mu'azzin should call out the adhaan in front of him. Immediately after the adhaan, the imam should stand up and deliver the khutbah.

2. Twelve things are sunnah in the khutbah :  (a) The person delivering the khutbah should be standing, (b) Two khutbahs should be delivered, (c) He must sit inbetween both the khutbahs to such an extent that Sub'haanallah could be recited three times, (d) He must be pure from hadath-e-akbar and hadath-e-asghar, (e) While delivering the khutbah, he must face the people, (f) He must recite A'udhu billahi minash shaytaanir rajeem in his heart before commencing with the khutbah, (g) He must deliver the khutbah in such a way that all the people can hear his voice, (h) The subject matter of the khutbah must comprise of the following eight things :  (i) gratitude to Allah Ta'ala, (ii) praise to Allah Ta'ala, (iii) testifying the Oneness of Allah Ta'ala and the prophethood of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, (iv) salutations to Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, (v) admonition and advice, (vi) recitation of verses or a Surah from the Quran, (vii) to repeat all these things in the second khutbah as well, (viii) to make dua for the Muslims instead of giving advice and admonition in the second khutbah. This was a list of the subject matter.

We will now go back to those factors which are sunnah for the khutbah itself. (i) The khutbah should not be too lengthy. Instead, it should be shorter than the salaat. (j) To deliver the khutbah from the mimbar. If there is no mimbar, one should stand up by taking support from a staff or rod. To take support from a staff or rod or to place one hand over the other while one is on the mimbar, which is the habit of some people; has not been reported. (k) Both the khutbahs have to be in Arabic. To deliver the khutbah in any other language or to add any poetry or idioms of another language as is prevalent today at some places is contrary to sunnah-e-mu'akkadah and is in fact makruh-e-tahrimi. (l) Those listening to the khutbah should face the qiblah.

In the second khutbah it is mustahab to make dua for Rasulullah's صلى الله عليه وسلمfamily, companions, wives, and specifically for the khulafaa-e-raashidin and Hadrat Hamzah and Abbas radiallahu anhuma. It is also permissible to make dua for the leader of the Islamic state. But it is makruh-e-tahrimi to praise him for things which are not true.

3. Once the imam stands up to deliver the khutbah, it is makruh-e-tahrimi to offer any salaat or to speak with each other. However, it is permissible for the saahib-e-tarteeb to offer his qada salaat at that time. In fact, it is wajib for him to offer his qada salaat. As long as the imam does not complete his khutbah, all these things will be prohibited.

4. Once the khutbah commences, it is wajib for all those present to listen to the khutbah. This is irrespective of whether they are sitting near the imam or far away from him. It is also makruh-e-tahrimi to do such a thing which will distract one from listening. Just as eating, drinking, talking, walking, making salaam, answering to a salaam, reading some tasbeeh, showing someone a masa'ala of the Shariah is prohibited while one is in salaat, it is also prohibited while the khutbah is being delivered. However, it is permissible for the one who is delivering the khutbah to show a mas'ala of the Shariah while he is delivering his khutbah.

5. If the khutbah commences while one is offering one’s salaat, it is better to complete it if it is sunnah-e-mu'akkadah. If it is a nafl salaat, one should make salaam after two rakaats.

6. It is makruh-e-tahrimi for the muqtadis as well as the imam to raise their hands and make dua inbetween the two khutbahs when the imam is sitting. However, it is permissible to make dua in one's heart without raising one's hands as long as one does not say anything with one’s tongue - neither silently nor loudly.

Nothing has been related from Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمand his companions with regard to delivering khutbahs on the last Friday of Ramadaan which contain matters related to the departure of Ramadaan. Nor is there any mention of this in the books of Islamic jurisprudence. In doing so, there is the danger of the masses thinking that this is necessary. It is therefore a bid'ah. Note :  These days undue attention is given to this sort of khutbahs. If anyone does not deliver such khutbahs, he is accused and mocked at. Special preparations are made in listening to such khutbahs.

7. It is permissible to deliver a khutbah while looking into a book.

8. If Rasulullah's صلى الله عليه وسلمname is mentioned in the khutbah, it is permissible for the muqtadis to send durood to him in their hearts.

 

The Jumu'ah Khutbah of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam

By quoting the jumu'ah khutbah of Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمit is not intended that people should start restricting themselves to this khutbah. This khutbah should be delivered occasionally as a source of barakah and with the intention of following the sunnah. It was the habit of Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمthat once all the people had gathered, he used to enter the musjid and make salaam to all those present. Hadrat Bilal radiallahu anhu used to call out the adhaan. On the completion of the adhaan, he used to immediately stand up and deliver his khutbah. Until the mimbar was not constructed, he used to take support from a staff. Occasionally, he used to place the staff against a pillar which was near the mihraab from where he used to deliver his khutbah, and then lean against it. After the construction of the mimbar, there is no evidence that he used to take support from a staff.

He used to deliver two khutbahs and sit down for a little while in-between the two khutbahs. When sitting down, he did not engage in any conversation nor should he make any dua. On completing the second khutbah, Hadrat Bilal radiallahu anhu used to call out the iqaamah and Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمused to commence the salaat.

While delivering the khutbah, Rasulullah's صلى الله عليه وسلمvoice used to get loud and his blessed eyes used to get red. It is mentioned in Sahih Muslim that when Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمused to deliver the khutbah his condition used to be as if he is warning the people of an invasion of an enemy that is very nearby. In most of the khutbahs he used to say :  "Qiyaamah and I have been sent just as these two fingers are!" And he used to join his middle and forefinger together. Thereafter, he used to deliver the following khutbah :

At times he used to deliver this khutbah :

At times, after saying the praises of Allah Ta'ala, he used to deliver the following khutbah :

A Sahabi says that Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمused to recite Surah Qaaf very regularly in his khutbahs so much so that I learnt Surah Qaaf merely by listening to Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمreciting it on the mimbar. At times he used to recite Surah al-Asr, and at times he used to recite the following verses :  

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 

Rules Related to Jumu'ah Salaat

1. It is preferable that the person who delivers the khutbah also performs the salaat. However, it is permissible for someone else to perform the salaat.

2. It is sunnah to call out the iqaamah and commence with the salaat immediately after the completion of the khutbah. It is makruh-e-tahrimi to engage in any worldly activity between the khutbah and the salaat. If there is a very lengthy gap between the khutbah and the salaat, it will be necessary to repeat the khutbah. However, if the delay is caused because of a Deeni reason, e.g. to show someone a mas'ala, or the wudu of the imam broke and he went to make wudu, or after delivering the khutbah he realized that he had to have a bath, so he went to have a bath - in all these cases it will not be makruh nor will it be necessary to repeat the khutbah.

3. Jumu'ah salaat should be offered with the following intention :  "I intend offering two rakaats fard of jumu'ah salaat."

4. It is preferable for all the people to get together and offer jumu'ah salaat in one musjid. However, it is permissible for the people of one place to offer their jumu'ah salaat in several musjids.

5. If a person joins the salaat in the last qa'dah at the time of reciting the at-tahiyyaat or after sajdah-e-sahw, his joining the jama'at will be correct and he will have to complete his jumu'ah salaat. He will not have to offer zuhr salaat.

6. Some people offer zuhr salaat after the jumu'ah salaat as a precaution. Since the belief of the masses has become corrupted in this regard, they should be strictly stopped from this. However, if a knowledgeable person wishes to offer the zuhr salaat due to some doubt, he should do so without letting anyone come to know of it.

Eid Salaat

1. The first of Shawwaal is known as Eid ul-Fitr, and the tenth of Zil Hijjah is known as Eid ul-Ad'haa. Both these days are days of festivity and celebration in Islam. On both these days it is wajib to offer two rakaats of salaat as a form of gratitude. The prerequisites and conditions that have been mentioned for the validity and compulsion for jumu'ah, apply for the Eid salaat as well. With the exception that for the jumu'ah salaat the khutbah is a prerequisite and fard, while for the Eid salaats it is not fard but sunnah. Furthermore, the jumu'ah khutbah is delivered before the salaat while for the Eid salaats, the khutbah is delivered after the salaat. However, listening to the khutbah of Eid is wajib just as it is wajib for the khutbah of jumu'ah, i.e. while the khutbah is being delivered, it is haraam to talk, walk about or offer salaat.

Thirteen things are sunnah on the day of Eid ul-Fitr :

(i) To adorn oneself according to the Shariah.

(ii) To have a bath.

(iii) To use miswaak.

(iv) To wear the best of clothing which one possesses.

(v) To apply perfume.

(vi) To wake up very early in the morning.

(vii) To go early to the eid-gaah.

(viii) To eat something sweet, such as dates, before going to the eid-gaah.

(ix) To give the sadaqatul fitr before going to the eid-gaah.

(x) To offer the Eid salaat in the eid-gaah. That is, one should not offer Eid salaat in the musjid without any valid reason.

(xi) To return from the eid-gaah taking a route that is different from the one that he had taken when going towards the eid-gaah.

(xii) To go to the eid-gaah on foot.

(xiii) To read the following takbeer softly while walking towards the eid-gaah :

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

2. The method of offering Eid ul-Fitr salaat is as follows :  the following intention should be made :  "I intend offering two rakaats wajib of Eid ul-Fitr salaat with six wajib takbeers." After making this intention, he should commence his salaat. He must recite the thanaa' and then say Allahu Akbar three times. Each time that he says Allahu Akbar, he should raise his hands to his ears just as he does for the takbeer-e-tahreemah. After making the takbeer, he should let his hands rest at his sides. In-between each takbeer, he should pause to such an extent that he can read Sub'haanallah three times. After the third takbeer, he should not rest his hands but tie them. He should then read the ta'awwudh and bismillah, Surah Faatihah and another Surah. Thereafter, he should make his ruku and sajdahs and stand up as he normally does. In the second rakaat, he should first recite Surah Faatihah and another Surah. Thereafter, he should make three takbeers but after the third takbeer he should not tie his hands but leave them at his sides. He should then make one more takbeer and go into ruku.

3. After the salaat, the imam has to stand on the mimbar and deliver two khutbahs. He should sit down in-between the two khutbahs to the extent that he sits between the khutbahs of jumu'ah.

4. Dua should be made after the Eid salaat, or even after the khutbah. Although this dua has not been established from the life of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the Sahabah, Taabi'een and even the Tabe Taabi'een, but because it is sunnah to make a dua after every salaat, it will be preferable to make it after the Eid salaat as well.

5. The khutbahs of Eid should commence with the takbeers. The takbeer should be said nine times in the first khutbah and seven times in the second khutbah.

6. The method of Eid ul-Ad'haa salaat is the same as that mentioned above, and the sunnahs of Eid ul-Fitr will also apply here. The difference is that when making the intention for the salaat, then instead of mentioning the word Eid ul-Fitr, one should say Eid ul-Ad'haa. Before going to the eid-gaah it is preferable to eat something on Eid ul-Fitr. But this is not the case in Eid ul-Ad'haa. On Eid ul-Fitr, it is sunnah to say the takbeers softly while going towards the eid-gaah. But on Eid ul-Ad'haa the takbeers should be said in a loud voice. It is preferable to offer the salaat of Eid ul-Fitr a little late. But for Eid ul-Ad'haa it should be offered early. For Eid ul-Ad'haa there is no sadaqatul fitr. Instead, there is the sacrificing of animals for those who can afford it. There is no adhaan nor iqaamah for both Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Ad'haa.

7. It is makruh to offer any other salaat on that day at the place where eid salaat is offered - not before the salaat nor after it. However, it is not makruh to offer any salaat after the Eid salaat at home. But to do so before the Eid salaat is makruh at home as well.

8. It is makruh for women and those people who do not offer Eid salaat to offer any nafl salaat before the Eid salaat.

9. The rules related to sadaqatul fitr should be mentioned in the khutbah of Eid ul-Fitr. The rules related to qurbaani and takbeer-e-tashreeq should be mentioned in the khutbah of Eid ul-Ad'haa. Takbeer-e-tashreeq is wajib after every fard salaat. The takbeer-e-tashreeq is as follows :

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

This takbeer will be wajib on the condition that the fard salaat has been offered with jama'at and the place is a city. This takbeer is not wajib on a woman and a musafir. But if they are muqtadis of a person on whom this takbeer is wajib, then it will be wajib on them as well. However, if a munfarid, a woman or a musafir recites this takbeer, it will be better for them because according to Imam Muhammad and Imam Abu Yusuf rahmatullahi alayhima it is wajib on them as well.

10. This takbeer should be recited after the fajr salaat of the ninth of Zil Hijjah till after the asr salaat of the thirteenth of Zil Hijjah. This totals 23 salaats after which this takbeer is wajib.

11. It is wajib to recite this takbeer in a loud voice. However, women should recite it in a soft voice.

12. The takbeer should be recited immediately after the salaat.

13. If the imam forgets to recite the takbeer, the muqtadis should immediately commence reciting it. They should not wait for the imam to commence.

14. According to some ulama, it is also wajib to say this takbeer after the salaat of Eid ul-Ad'haa.

15. All the ulama are of the opinion that it is permissible to offer the salaats of Eid at several places.

16. If a person misses his Eid salaat and all the other people have already completed their salaat, this person cannot offer his salaat alone. This is because jama'at is a prerequisite for the Eid salaats. In the same way, if a person joins the jama'at but for some reason or the other his salaat becomes invalid, then he cannot make qada of it nor will qada be wajib on him. However, if a few other people also join him, qada will become wajib.

17. If for some reason the Eid salaat is not offered on the first day, then Eid ul-Fitr salaat could be offered on the second day. And Eid ul-Ad'haa salaat could be offered till the twelfth of Zil Hijjah.

18. If the Eid ul-Ad'haa salaat is delayed till the twelfth without any excuse, it will still be valid. But it is makruh to do so. If the Eid ul-Fitr salaat is delayed without any excuse, the salaat will not be valid at all. Examples of excuses :  (i) the imam does not come to perform the salaat for some reason or the other, (ii) it is raining heavily, (iii) the date of the moon has not been established and it only becomes established after mid-day when the time for the salaat has already expired, (iv) salaat was offered on a cloudy day, and after the disappearance of the clouds it is realized that the salaat was not offered in its correct time.

19. If a person joins the Eid salaat at a time when the imam has already completed saying the takbeers, then if he joined the jama'at while they were still in the standing posture, he should immediately make the takbeers even if the imam is busy with his qira'at. If he joins the salaat while the imam is in ruku, he should make his takbeers only if he feels that he will be able to catch up with the imam in his ruku. But if he fears that he will not be able to catch up with the imam, he should go straight into ruku. Instead of reading the tasbeehs in the ruku, he should recite the takbeers. However, when he makes the takbeers in his ruku, he should not raise his hands. If the imam stands up from the ruku before he can complete his takbeers, he should not try to complete them. Instead, he should stand up with the imam. The takbeers which he missed will be forgiven.

20. If a person misses the first rakaat of Eid salaat, when he stands up to complete it, he should first recite Surah Faatihah, another Surah and then make the takbeers. Although, according to the rule, he ought to have made the takbeers first, he should not do this. Because if he does this, then the takbeers of both the rakaats will come one after the other. And this is not the method of any Sahabi. Therefore, the rule has been given contrary to this.

If the imam forgets to say the takbeers and only remembers this while in ruku, he should say the takbeers in his ruku and should not return to the standing posture. But if he returns to the standing posture, it will still be permissible, i.e. the salaat will not become invalid. However, because of the large crowd, sajdah-e-sahw should not be made.

 

Miscellaneous Masa'il

1. If a person uproots his hair, the root of that hair is regarded as impure because of the stickyness that is found on it. (Shaami)

2. It is makruh for the residents of a place where the eid salaats are wajib to offer any nafl salaat between the fajr and eid salaats. (al-Bahrur Raa'iq)

3. It is makruh to clip the nails, to remove the pubic hair or hair from anywhere else while one is in a state of major impurity. (Aalamgiri)

4. Immature children receive the reward for offering salaat and other acts of ibaadah. The person who teaches them also receives reward for this.

5. It is not makruh to recite the Quran at times when salaat is makruh. Apart from reciting the Quran, one could also recite durood or engage in any other form of remembrance. (Saghiri)

6. It is permissible to recite a certain portion of a Surah in one rakaat and recite the remainder of that Surah in the second rakaat. Similarly, it is permissible to recite the beginning or middle of a particular Surah in one rakaat and the beginning or middle of another Surah or one complete short Surah in the second rakaat. (Saghiri) However, it is not good to make a habit of doing this. It is better to recite a separate Surah in each rakaat.

7. While offering the taraweeh salaat, a person forgets to recite a particular verse or Surah and continues reading ahead. Later he realizes that he had forgotten to recite that verse or Surah. It will be mustahab for him to recite that verse or Surah. After reciting the missed verse or Surah, he should repeat those verses or Surahs which he had continued reciting so that he may be able to complete the Quran in the order that it is written. (Aalamgiri) However, if a person continued reading ahead and recited many verses or Surahs and repeating all these will be very difficult, it will be permissible for him to merely repeat the verse or Surah which he had missed out and continue ahead. This is because this ruling is mustahab (and not wajib).

8. Perspiration on the forehead, watering of the eyes and flaring of the nostrils at the time of death are all signs of a good death. Perspiration on the forehead alone is also a sign of a good death.

9. Mud and impure water on the roads (which splashes on the clothes) can be overlooked as long as the traces of the impurity are not visible on the clothing.

10. It is not permissible to make wudu or ghusl with musta'mal (used) water. The following types of water are regarded as musta'mal water :  water that has been used to make wudu or ghusl by a person who was in need of wudu or ghusl, water that has been used by a person who had wudu but made wudu again in order to obtain reward, water that has been used by a person upon whom ghusl was not wajib but made ghusl for reward, e.g. a person makes ghusl on Friday despite ghusl not being wajib on him. It is makruh to use such water for drinking or cooking purposes. (Shaami) When we mentioned the person upon whom ghusl became wajib - this rule with regards to him will only apply if no impurity is found on his body. If there is any impurity on his body, then that used water will not even be permissible for drinking and cooking purposes.

 

Glossary

Explanation of Islamic Terms

Adaa :  Literally means performance, execution or discharge of a duty. "Adaa salaat" refers to a salaat which is offered at its specified time. "Adaa" is the opposite of "qada".

Adhaan :  The call to salaat. For further details, refer to the chapter on "Adhaan".

Ahl ul-Kitaab :  Literally means "People of the Book". Generally, it refers to the Jews and the Christians.

Arsh :  The throne of Allah Ta'ala.

Asr :  Literally means "afternoon". Generally, it refers to the afternoon prayer which is the third of the five daily salaats. It is also referred to as asr salaat or salaatul asr.

Aurah :  Literally means "genitals". In Islamic terminology it refers to that area of the body which has to be covered. For men, the aurah is from the navel to below the knees. As for women, their entire bodies are regarded as an aurah.

Barakah :  Literally means "blessings". It refers to the experiencing of abundance in things which are apparently insignificant or little, both in value and amount.

Bid'ah :  Literally means "innovation". In Islam it refers to introducing new things into religion which have no basis in the Quran or Sunnah, and in addition to this, to regard these new things as acts of ibaadah. A bid'ah is a major sin in Islam.

Dua :  Invocation to Allah, supplication, prayer, request, plea.

Dua-e-qunoot :  A special dua that is recited in witr salaat. For further details, refer to the chapter on "Witr Salaat".

Durood :  The sending of salutations upon Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.

Eid :  Literally means "feast, festival". In Islam, it refers to the first day of the month of Shawwaal and the tenth day of the month of Zil Hijjah. Both these days are days of celebration and devotion to Allah Ta'ala.

Eid-gah :  The place where the eid salaat is offered. In Arabic it is referred to as the "musalla".

Eid salaat :  The salaat that is offered on the days of eid.

Eid ul-Ad'haa :  The tenth of Zil Hijjah. Literally means "the festival of sacrifice". It is referred to as ad'haa because it is on this day that animals are sacrificed in the name of Allah and for His pleasure alone.

Eid ul-Fitr :  The first of Shawwaal. Literally means "feast of breaking the Ramadaan fast". It is referred to as fitr because it is on this day that the month-long Ramadaan fast comes to an end.

Esha :  Literally means "evening". Generally, it refers to the evening prayer which is the fifth of the five daily prayers. It is also referred to as esha salaat or salaatul esha.

Faasiq :  Literally means "godless, sinful, offender, sinner, adulterer". In Islamic law it refers to the person who does not meet the legal requirements of righteousness.

Fajr :  Literally means "dawn". Generally, it refers to the dawn prayer which is the first of the five daily prayers. It is also referred to as fajr salaat or salaatul fajr.

Fara'id :  Plural of fard. Fard literally means "compulsory". In Islam it refers to those acts and things which are compulsory on a Muslim. Abandoning or abstaining from a fard act is a major sin. Rejecting a fard act amounts to kufr.

Fard :  See fara'id.

Fard-e-ayn :  Refers to an act or duty which is incumbent and compulsory on each and every individual.

Fard-e-kifaayah :  Refers to an act or duty which is incumbent and compulsory on the community as a whole. If a few members of the community or locality fulfil that act, the entire community will be absolved of that responsibility or duty. And if no one from that community or locality fulfils that responsibility or duty, the entire community will be sinful.

Fatwa :  A formal legal opinion or verdict in Islamic law.

Fidyah :  Literally means "ransom". In Islamic law it refers to redemption from the omission of certain religious duties by a material donation or a ritual act.

Ghayb :  Literally means "the unseen". In Islam it refers to all those things that are unseen by man and at the same time believing in them is essential. Examples of the unseen are :  hell, heaven, angels, etc. A Muslim has to believe that no one has the knowledge of the unseen except Allah.

Ghayr Mahram :  Refers to all those people with whom marriage is permissible. Based on this, it is also incumbent to observe purdah with all ghayr mahrams.

Ghusl :  Literally means "bath, wash". In Islam it refers to the washing of the entire body from head to toe without leaving a single place dry.

Hadath :  Literally means "impurity". Hadath is of two types; hadath-e-akbar and hadath-e-asghar. Hadath-e-akbar is that impurity which necessitates ghusl. Hadath-e-asghar is that impurity which necessitates wudu.

Hadith :  Hadith literally means "speech". In Islam it refers to the sayings and actions of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Those sayings and actions which have been endorsed or approved by him also fall under the purview of Hadith.

Haid :  Monthly periods or menstruation experienced by a woman.

Hajj :  Literally means "pilgrimage". In Islam it refers to the annual pilgrimage to Makkah. Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam.

Hijaab :  See Purdah.

Ibaadah :  Literally means "worship". In Islam it refers to all those acts of worship with which one renders worship to Allah Ta'ala.

Imam :  Literally means "leader". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the leader of the congregation for salaat.

Imaamat :  Refers to the act of being an imam or the entire institution of imaamate which deals with the appointment, rules, regulations, etc. which are related to the imam.

Iqaamah :  Refers to the second call to salaat in a musjid indicating the imminent beginning of the salaat with congregation. For further details, refer to the chapter on adhaan and iqaamah.

Iqtidaa :  Refers to the act of following the imam in salaat.

Ishaarah :  Literally means "gesture". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the offering of salaat through gestures and signals for the person who is unable to offer his salaat in the normal stipulated manner due to sickness or physical handicap.

Istighfaar :  The seeking of forgiveness from Allah Ta'ala.

Istikhaarah :  The seeking of good from Allah Ta'ala. For further details, refer to the chapter on salaatul istikhaarah.

Istinja :  Cleansing of one's private parts after having relieved oneself. This is irrespective of whether this cleansing is done with water or lumps of sand.

I'tikaaf :  Literally means "to live in seclusion". In Islam, it generally refers to the act of secluding oneself in the musjid in the month of Ramadaan.

Jaahil :  Literally means "an ignorant person". Here it refers to one who is ignorant of the knowledge of Islam. This is irrespective of whether it is general knowledge of Islam or knowledge of the rules and regulations of Islam.

Jaame musjid :  Refers to a musjid in which the jumu'ah salaat is offered. It is generally the main musjid in a town or city.

Jahannam :  Hell. A dweller of hell is called a jahannami.

Jama'at :  Literally means "congregation or group". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the act of offering salaat with congregation.

Janaazah salaat :  Salaat that is offered over the deceased person. For further details refer to the chapter on janaazah salaat.

Jannah :  Heaven or paradise. A dweller of heaven is called a jannati.

Jihaad :  Literally means "fight or battle". In Islam, it generally refers to the act of waging a war against the disbelievers as a religious duty.

Jumu'ah salaat :  Refers to the mid-day salaat that is offered on Fridays. For further details, refer to the chapter on jumu'ah salaat.

Kaafir :  Literally means "a disbeliever". In Islam it refers to one who rejects Allah and who does not believe in Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلمas the final messenger of Allah.

Kafan :  A shroud or winding sheet. It refers to the sheet or shroud that is used to cover the deceased. For further details, refer to the chapter on kafan.

Kaffarah :  Literally means "penance, atonement, expiation". In Islamic law it refers to redemption from the omission of certain religious duties by a material donation or a ritual act.

Khutbah :  Literally means "a lecture". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the lecture or sermon that is delivered on Fridays prior to the jumu'ah salaat or the sermon that is delivered on the days of eid after the eid salaat. These khutbahs have to be delivered in the Arabic language.

Kuffaar :  Plural of kaafir.

Kuniyyat :  Surname or agnomen consisting of abu or umm followed by the name of the son.

Kurta :  An Urdu word meaning "shirt". However, due to constant usage, it refers to the long flowing robe worn by Muslim men and which has come to be regarded as an Islamic dress.

Laahiq :  A laahiq is a muqtadi who misses a few or all his rakaats after having joined the congregation irrespective of whether he has some excuse or not. For further details refer to the chapter "Masa'il connected to the imam and muqtadi" mas'ala no. 22.

Lailatul Qadr :  Literally means "the night of power". It refers to the night in which the Quran was revealed. This night generally falls in the last ten odd nights of the month of Ramadaan.

Luqmah :  Literally means "a little piece or morsel". In kitaabus salaat it refers to correcting the imam when he commits any mistake while leading the congregation in salaat.

Maghrib :  Literally means "evening or sunset". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the time of sunset and the salaat that is offered thereafter. This salaat is known as maghrib salaat or salaatul maghrib.

Mahram :  Refers to the person with whom marriage is not permissible and with whom strict purdah is not incumbent.

Makruh :  That which is disliked or detestable. Makruh is of two types :  makruh-e-tahrimi and makruh-e-tanzihi. Makruh-e-tahrimi is that which has been established by a proof that is not absolute. The one who rejects it is regarded as a faasiq (open sinner). A person who does something that falls under this category without any valid reason will be committing a sin and will deserve punishment. Makruh-e-tanzihi is that which if left out, will be worthy of reward and if carried out, will not entail any punishment.

Manzil :  Literally means "a stopping place". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the distance travelled by a musafir.

Masah :  The act of passing of wet hands over a particular part of the body.

Mas'ala :  Literally means "an issue, problem or question". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to a rule or regulation. The plural of mas'ala is masaa'il.

Masbuq :  A person who joins the jama'at after having missed one or more rakaats. For further details refer to the chapter "Masa'il connected to the imam and muqtadi" mas'ala no. 24.

Ma'zur :  Literally means "one who is excused". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to a person who has certain sickness due to which he is excused or exempted from certain acts. For further details refer to the chapter concerning the ma'zur in Part One of Bahishti Zewar.

Mihraab :  Refers to the small oval-shaped area in the front of a musjid which is specially designated for the imam when he leads the congregation in salaat.

Mimbar :  Refers to the pulpit on which the imam stands and delivers the khutbah on Fridays and the days of eid.

Mu'azzin :  One who calls out the adhaan.

Mudrik :  One who joins the congregation without missing any rakaats.

Muhaddith :  A scholar of Hadith who has attained high ranks in the different sciences of Hadith.

Mujtahideen :  Plural of mujtahid. A mujtahid is one who has the qualities of making ijtihaad (deriving rules and regulations through analogy).

Mukabbir :  A person who conveys the takbirs of the imam when the congregation is generally very large and there is no mike system.

Munfarid :  A person who offers his salaat alone, i.e. not in congregation.

Muqeem :  A person who is not a traveller. He is either at his own home or, if he has travelled, then he has made the intention of staying over at that place for more than fifteen days. For further details refer to the chapter "Salaat on a Journey".

Muqtadi :  A person who follows the imam in salaat.

Murtad :  Literally means "a renegade". In Islamic terminology it refers to a person who rejects Islam after having been a Muslim.

Musafir :  A traveller. For further details refer to the chapter "Salaat on a Journey".

Musalla :  Refers to a piece of cloth or carpet on which a person offers his salaat. Musalla is also used in Arabic to refer to a place where the eid salaat is offered.

Musalli :  One who is offering salaat.

Mustahab :  Literally means "preferable or desirable". Refers to that an which was carried out by Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمor the Sahabah occasionally. Carrying out these actions entails reward and leaving them out does not entail any punishment.

Muzdalifah :  Name of a place outside Makkah. Staying over in Muzdalifah is included among the rites of Hajj.

Nafl :  Literally means "optional". According to the jurists it has a similar ruling to that of mustahab.

Najaasat-e-

ghaleezah :  Heavy impurity.

Najaasat-e-haqiqi :  Visible impurity.

Najaasat-e-hukmi :  Ceremonial impurity. In other words, it refers to the state of impurity in which a person may be, e.g. in need of wudu or ghusl.

Nazr :  A vow or solemn pledge.

Nifaas :  Refers to the flowing of blood after child-birth.

Nikah :  Marriage.

Niyyah :  Intention.

Nur :  Light.

Purdah :  An Urdu word meaning "seclusion". It is an equivalent of the Arabic word "hijaab". Refers to the seclusion of women from strangers. There are different stages of purdah, the highest of which is that the woman should not emerge from her home except for a valid Islamic reason.

Qaari :  Literally means "one who recites". In Islamic terminology it refers to the person who recites the Quran bearing in mind all the necessary rules of recitation.

Qada :  Literally means "carrying out or fulfilling". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one may have missed due to some reason or the other.

Qa'dah :  Refers to the sitting posture in salaat.

Qada salaat :  Refers to fulfilling or completing a salaat which one may have missed for some reason or the other. For further details, refer to the chapter on qada salaat.

Qasm :  An oath.

Qiblah :  The direction in which one faces when offering salaat.

Qira'at :  Literally means "recitation". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the recitation of the Quran in salaat.

Qisaas :  Literally means "reprisal or retaliation". In Islamic law it refers to the payment of money in lieu of willful or unintentional murder.

Qiyaamah :  The day of resurrection.

Qunut :  Refers to the dua that is generally read in the witr salaat, and in the fajr salaat at times of danger and calamities. For further details refer to the chapter on witr salaat.

Qurbaani :  Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam it refers to the sacrificing of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of eid ul-ad'haa and the two days following it.

Rakaat :  Literally means "bending of the torso from an upright position". In kitaabus salaat it refers to one unit of salaat which comprises of the standing, bowing and prostrating postures.

Ramadaan :  Refers to the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It is in this month that the fast is observed. This is the most sacred month of the Islamic calendar.

Rukn :  Literally means "basis or basic element". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to the basic element or elements of any act of ibaadah without which that act will be incomplete.

Saahib-e-tarteeb :  Refers to a person who, from the time of maturity, did not miss any salaat, or, if he missed, he made qada of all of them. For further details, refer to the chapter on Qada salaat, mas'ala no.6.

Sadaqah-e-fitr :  Refers to the charity that is given on or prior to the day of eid ul-fitr. This sadaqah is wajib on those upon whom zakaat is wajib.

Saff :  Literally means "line". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the lines in which the musallis stand when offering their salaat with congregation.

Sahw :  Literally means "negligence or forgetfulness". In kitaabus salaat it refers to omitting or forgetting a particular act in salaat.

Sajdah :  The act of prostrating. Prostrating to anyone other than Allah Ta'ala is absolutely haraam in Islam.

Sajdah-e-sahw :  Refers to the prostration which becomes incumbent upon forgetting or omitting an act in salaat. For further details refer to the chapter on sajdah-e-sahw.

Sajdah-e-tilaawat :  Refers to the prostration which becomes incumbent upon reciting or hearing the verses of prostration of the Quran. For further details refer to the chapter on sajdah-e-tilaawat.

Salaam :  Literally means "peace". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the saying of "as salaamu alaykum wa rahmatullah" which denotes the end of the salaat.

Salaat-e-kusuf :  Refers to the salaat that is offered at the time of solar eclipse. For further details refer to the chapter on salaat-e-kusuf.

Shawwaal :  The tenth month of the Islamic calendar.

Sunnah :  Sunnah is that action which Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمdid or sanctioned. Sunnah is of two types :  sunnah-e-mu'akkadah and sunnah-e-ghayr mu'akkadah. Sunnah-e-mu'akkadah is that which Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمcontinuously carried out. To leave out such a type of sunnah is a sin and one is punished for this. However, there is no harm if one leaves it out because of some valid excuse.

Sunnah-e-ghayr mu'akkadah is that which Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلمcarried out, but also left out at times without any reason. To follow such a type of sunnah entails reward and to leave it out does not necessitate any punishment.

Surah :  Refers to a chapter of the Quran. There are 114 surahs in the Quran.

Surah Faatihah :  This is the first or opening chapter of the Quran.

Surmah :  Antimony. A black powdery substance that is applied to the eyes. It is sunnah to apply this surmah.

Sutra :  Literally means "a cover or guard". In kitaabus salaat it refers to an object that a musalli places in front of him so that no one will walk in front of him while he is offering his salaat.

Taabi'ee :  A taabi'ee is a Muslim who has met a sahabi and who died in a state of Imaan.

Taahir :  Pure.

Ta'awwudh :  Literally means "seeking protection". In kitaabus salaat it refers to reciting a'udhu billahi minash shaytaanir rajeem before commencing with the qira'at in salaat.

Tahaarat :  Purity or the state of purity.

Tahajjud salaat :  An optional salaat that is offered in the dark of the night. There is great merit in offering this salaat.

Takbeer :  To say "Allahu Akbar" which means Allah is the Greatest.

Takbeer-e-

tahreemah :  The first takbeer that one says when commencing with salaat.

Takbeer-e-

tashreeq :  The takbeer that is recited during the days of eid ul-ad'haa. For further details refer to the chapter on eid salaat.

Taqwa :  Piety, righteousness, God-consciousness.

Tasbeeh :  Saying "Sub'haanallah" which means Glory be to Allah. A rosary that is used to glorify Allah Ta'ala is also called a tasbeeh.

Taubah :  Repentance.

Tauheed :  The Oneness of Allah Ta'ala. The concept of tauheed is the corner stone of Islamic belief.

Tawakkul :  Having trust in Allah Ta'ala, i.e. He alone has full contol over all the affairs of this world and the hereafter.

Tayammum :  The act of purifying oneself with pure sand in the absence of water.

Ta'ziyat :  Condolence.

Thanaa' :  Literally means "praise". In kitaabus salaat it refers to a special dua that is recited after the takbeer-e-tahreemah.

Ulama :  Plural of aalim. An aalim is a scholar who has attained a considerable amount of Islamic knowledge.

Ummah :  Literally means "community or nation". Here it refers to the Muslim community or nation.

Umrah :  Commonly referred to as the "lesser pilgrimage". It is similar to Hajj with the exception that many of the rites of Hajj are left out and that it could be performed throughout the year.

Wajib :  Literally means "obligatory". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to that act which has not been established by an absolute proof. Leaving out a wajib without any valid reason makes one a faasiq and entails punishment.

Wajibaat :  Plural of wajib.

Waqf :  Endowment. In Islamic law it refers to endowing a place or thing in the name of Allah.

Wasiyyat :  Bequest.

Watan-e-iqaamat :  Refers to a place where a musafir intends to stop over for fifteen days or more.

Witr salaat :  Refers to the salaat that is offered after the esha salaat. This salaat is wajib. For further details refer to the chapter on witr salaat.

Wudu :  Literally means "purity or cleanliness". In Islamic terminology it refers to the act of washing oneself before offering salaat.

Zil Hijjah :  The last month of the Islamic calendar. It is in this month that the Hajj is performed.

Zimmi :  A non-Muslim person living in an Islamic state under the protection of the Islamic state.

Zuhr :  Literally means "mid-day". In kitaabus salaat it refers to the mid-day prayer. It is referred to as zuhr salaat or salaatuz zuhr.